elm tree – Перевод на русский – примеры английский | Reverso Context

elm tree - Перевод на русский - примеры английский | Reverso Context ОБД2

Elm tree – перевод на русский – примеры английский | reverso context

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In mythology and literature[]

In Greek mythology the nymph Ptelea (Πτελέα, Elm) was one of the eight Hamadryads, nymphs of the forest and daughters of Oxylos and Hamadryas.[59] In his Hymn to Artemis the poet Callimachus (3rd century BC) tells how, at the age of three, the infant goddess Artemis practised her newly acquired silver bow and arrows, made for her by Hephaestus and the Cyclopes, by shooting first at an elm, then at an oak, before turning her aim on a wild animal:

πρῶτον ἐπὶ πτελέην, τὸ δὲ δεύτερον ἧκας ἐπὶ δρῦν, τὸ τρίτον αὖτ᾽ ἐπὶ θῆρα.[60]

The first reference in literature to elms occurs in the Iliad. When Eetion, father of Andromache, is killed by Achilles during the Trojan War, the Mountain Nymphs plant elms on his tomb (“περί δὲ πτελέας ἐφύτευσαν νύμφαι ὀρεστιάδες, κoῦραι Διὸς αἰγιόχoιo”).[61]
Also in the Iliad, when the River Scamander, indignant at the sight of so many corpses in his water, overflows and threatens to drown Achilles, the latter grasps a branch of a great elm in an attempt to save himself (“ὁ δὲ πτελέην ἕλε χερσὶν εὐφυέα μεγάλην”.[62]

The Nymphs also planted elms on the tomb in the Thracian Chersonese of “great-hearted Protesilaus” (“μεγάθυμου Πρωτεσιλάου”), the first Greek to fall in the Trojan War. These elms grew to be the tallest in the known world; but when their topmost branches saw far off the ruins of Troy, they immediately withered, so great still was the bitterness of the hero buried below, who had been loved by Laodamia and slain by Hector.[63][64][65] The story is the subject of a poem by Antiphilus of Byzantium (1st century AD) in the Palatine Anthology:

Θεσσαλὲ Πρωτεσίλαε, σὲ μὲν πολὺς ᾄσεται αἰών,
Tρoίᾳ ὀφειλoμένoυ πτώματος ἀρξάμενoν•
σᾶμα δὲ τοι πτελέῃσι συνηρεφὲς ἀμφικoμεῦση
Nύμφαι, ἀπεχθoμένης Ἰλίoυ ἀντιπέρας.
Δένδρα δὲ δυσμήνιτα, καὶ ἤν ποτε τεῖχoς ἴδωσι
Tρώϊον, αὐαλέην φυλλοχoεῦντι κόμην.
ὅσσoς ἐν ἡρώεσσι τότ᾽ ἦν χόλoς, oὗ μέρoς ἀκμὴν
ἐχθρὸν ἐν ἀψύχoις σώζεται ἀκρέμoσιν.[66]
[:Thessalian Protesilaos, a long age shall sing your praises,
Of the destined dead at Troy the first;
Your tomb with thick-foliaged elms they covered,
The nymphs, across the water from hated Ilion.
Trees full of anger; and whenever that wall they see,
Of Troy, the leaves in their upper crown wither and fall.
So great in the heroes was the bitterness then, some of which still
Remembers, hostile, in the soulless upper branches.]

Protesilaus had been king of Pteleos (Πτελεός) in Thessaly, which took its name from the abundant elms (πτελέoι) in the region.[67]

Elms occur often in pastoral poetry, where they symbolise the idyllic life, their shade being mentioned as a place of special coolness and peace. In the first Idyll of Theocritus (3rd century BC), for example, the goat-herd invites the shepherd to sit “here beneath the elm” (“δεῦρ’ ὑπὸ τὰν πτελέαν”) and sing.

Aside from references literal and metaphorical to the elm and vine theme, the tree occurs in Latin literature in the Elm of Dreams in the Aeneid.[69] When the Sibyl of Cumae leads Aeneas down to the Underworld, one of the sights is the Stygian Elm:

In medio ramos annosaque bracchia pandit
ulmus opaca, ingens, quam sedem somnia vulgo
uana tenere ferunt, foliisque sub omnibus haerent.
[:Spreads in the midst her boughs and agéd arms
an elm, huge, shadowy, where vain dreams, ’tis said,
are wont to roost them, under every leaf close-clinging.]

Virgil refers to a Roman superstition (vulgo) that elms were trees of ill-omen because their fruit seemed to be of no value.[70] It has been noted[71] that two elm-motifs have arisen from classical literature: (1)

the ‘Paradisal Elm’ motif, arising from pastoral idylls and the elm-and-vine theme, and (2) the ‘Elm and Death’ motif, perhaps arising from Homer’s commemorative elms and Virgil’s Stygian Elm. Many references to elm in European literature from the Renaissance onwards fit into one or other of these categories.

There are two examples of pteleogenesis (:birth from elms) in world myths. In Germanic and Scandinavian mythology the first woman, Embla, was fashioned from an elm,[72]
while in Japanese mythology Kamuy Fuchi, the chief goddess of the Ainu people, “was born from an elm impregnated by the Possessor of the Heavens”.[73]

In politics[]

The cutting of the elm was a diplomatic altercation between the Kings of France and England in 1188, during which an elm tree near Gisors in Normandy was felled. [76]

In politics the elm is associated with revolutions. In England after the Glorious Revolution of 1688, the final victory of parliamentarians over monarchists, and the arrival from Holland, with William III and Mary II, of the ‘Dutch Elm’ hybrid, planting of this cultivar became a fashion among enthusiasts of the new political order.[77][78]

In the American Revolution ‘The Liberty Tree’ was an American white elm in Boston, Massachusetts, in front of which, from 1765, the first resistance meetings were held against British attempts to tax the American colonists without democratic representation.

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When the British, knowing that the tree was a symbol of rebellion, felled it in 1775, the Americans took to widespread ‘Liberty Elm’ planting, and sewed elm symbols on to their revolutionary flags.[79][80] Elm-planting by American Presidents later became something of a tradition.

In the French Revolution, too, Les arbres de la liberté (:Liberty Trees), often elms, were planted as symbols of revolutionary hopes, the first in Vienne, Isère, in 1790, by a priest inspired by the Boston elm.[79]L’Orme de La Madeleine (:

the Elm of La Madeleine), Faycelles, Département de Lot, planted around 1790 and surviving to this day, was a case in point.[81] By contrast, a famous Parisian elm associated with the Ancien Régime, L’Orme de Saint-Gervais in the Place St-Gervais, was felled by the revolutionaries; church authorities planted a new elm in its place in 1846, and an early 20th-century elm stands on the site today.[82] Premier Lionel Jospin, obliged by tradition to plant a tree in the garden of the Hôtel Matignon, the official residence and workplace of Prime Ministers of France, insisted on planting an elm, so-called ‘tree of the Left’, choosing the new disease-resistant hybrid ‘Clone 762’ (Ulmus ‘Wanoux’ = Vada).[83] In the French Republican Calendar, in use from 1792 to 1806, the 12th day of the month Ventôse (= 2 March) was officially named “jour de l’Orme”, Day of the Elm.

Liberty Elms were also planted in other countries in Europe to celebrate their revolutions, an example being L’Olmo di Montepaone, L’Albero della Libertà (:the Elm of Montepaone, Liberty Tree) in Montepaone, Calabria, planted in 1799 to commemorate the founding of the democratic Parthenopean Republic, and surviving until it was brought down by a recent storm (it has since been cloned and ‘replanted’).[84] After the Greek Revolution of 1821–32, a thousand young elms were brought to Athens from Missolonghi, “Sacred City of the Struggle” against the Turks and scene of Lord Byron’s death, and planted in 1839–40 in the National Garden.[85][86] In an ironic development, feral elms have spread and invaded the grounds of the abandoned Greek royal summer palace at Tatoi in Attica.

In a chance event linking elms and revolution, on the morning of his execution (30 January 1649), walking to the scaffold at the Palace of Whitehall, King Charles I turned to his guards and pointed out, with evident emotion, an elm near the entrance to Spring Gardens that had been planted by his brother in happier days. The tree was said to be still standing in the 1860s.[87]


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Species and species cultivars[]

In North America, careful selection has produced a number of trees resistant not only to DED, but also to the droughts and cold winters that occur within the continent. Research in the United States has concentrated on the American elm (Ulmus americana), resulting in the release of DED-resistant clones, notably the cultivars’Valley Forge’ and ‘Jefferson’.

In 1993, Mariam B. Sticklen and James L. Sherald reported the results of experiments funded by the United States National Park Service and conducted at Michigan State University in East Lansing that were designed to apply genetic engineering techniques to the development of DED-resistant strains of American elm trees.[20] In 2007, AE Newhouse and F Schrodt of the State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry in Syracuse reported that young transgenic American elm trees had shown reduced DED symptoms and normal mycorrhizal colonization.[21]

In Europe, the European white elm (Ulmus laevis) has received much attention. While this elm has little innate resistance to Dutch elm disease, it is not favoured by the vector bark beetles and thus only becomes colonized and infected when there are no other choices, a rare situation in western Europe.

Research in Spain has suggested that it may be the presence of a triterpene, alnulin, which makes the tree bark unattractive to the beetle species that spread the disease.[22] However this possibility has not been conclusively proven.[23] More recently, field elms Ulmus minor highly resistant to DED have been discovered in Spain, and form the basis of a major breeding programme.[24]

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