Elm tree – перевод на русский – примеры английский | reverso context
Индекс слова:1-300, 301-600, 601-900
Индекс выражения:1-400, 401-800, 801-1200
Индекс фразы:1-400, 401-800, 801-1200
In mythology and literature
In Greek mythology the nymph Ptelea (Πτελέα, Elm) was one of the eight Hamadryads, nymphs of the forest and daughters of Oxylos and Hamadryas. In his Hymn to Artemis the poet Callimachus (3rd century BC) tells how, at the age of three, the infant goddess Artemis practised her newly acquired silver bow and arrows, made for her by Hephaestus and the Cyclopes, by shooting first at an elm, then at an oak, before turning her aim on a wild animal:
- πρῶτον ἐπὶ πτελέην, τὸ δὲ δεύτερον ἧκας ἐπὶ δρῦν, τὸ τρίτον αὖτ᾽ ἐπὶ θῆρα.
The first reference in literature to elms occurs in the Iliad. When Eetion, father of Andromache, is killed by Achilles during the Trojan War, the Mountain Nymphs plant elms on his tomb (“περί δὲ πτελέας ἐφύτευσαν νύμφαι ὀρεστιάδες, κoῦραι Διὸς αἰγιόχoιo”).
Also in the Iliad, when the River Scamander, indignant at the sight of so many corpses in his water, overflows and threatens to drown Achilles, the latter grasps a branch of a great elm in an attempt to save himself (“ὁ δὲ πτελέην ἕλε χερσὶν εὐφυέα μεγάλην”.
The Nymphs also planted elms on the tomb in the Thracian Chersonese of “great-hearted Protesilaus” (“μεγάθυμου Πρωτεσιλάου”), the first Greek to fall in the Trojan War. These elms grew to be the tallest in the known world; but when their topmost branches saw far off the ruins of Troy, they immediately withered, so great still was the bitterness of the hero buried below, who had been loved by Laodamia and slain by Hector. The story is the subject of a poem by Antiphilus of Byzantium (1st century AD) in the Palatine Anthology:
- Θεσσαλὲ Πρωτεσίλαε, σὲ μὲν πολὺς ᾄσεται αἰών,
- Tρoίᾳ ὀφειλoμένoυ πτώματος ἀρξάμενoν•
- σᾶμα δὲ τοι πτελέῃσι συνηρεφὲς ἀμφικoμεῦση
- Nύμφαι, ἀπεχθoμένης Ἰλίoυ ἀντιπέρας.
- Δένδρα δὲ δυσμήνιτα, καὶ ἤν ποτε τεῖχoς ἴδωσι
- Tρώϊον, αὐαλέην φυλλοχoεῦντι κόμην.
- ὅσσoς ἐν ἡρώεσσι τότ᾽ ἦν χόλoς, oὗ μέρoς ἀκμὴν
- ἐχθρὸν ἐν ἀψύχoις σώζεται ἀκρέμoσιν.
- [:Thessalian Protesilaos, a long age shall sing your praises,
- Of the destined dead at Troy the first;
- Your tomb with thick-foliaged elms they covered,
- The nymphs, across the water from hated Ilion.
- Trees full of anger; and whenever that wall they see,
- Of Troy, the leaves in their upper crown wither and fall.
- So great in the heroes was the bitterness then, some of which still
- Remembers, hostile, in the soulless upper branches.]
Protesilaus had been king of Pteleos (Πτελεός) in Thessaly, which took its name from the abundant elms (πτελέoι) in the region.
Elms occur often in pastoral poetry, where they symbolise the idyllic life, their shade being mentioned as a place of special coolness and peace. In the first Idyll of Theocritus (3rd century BC), for example, the goat-herd invites the shepherd to sit “here beneath the elm” (“δεῦρ’ ὑπὸ τὰν πτελέαν”) and sing.
Aside from references literal and metaphorical to the elm and vine theme, the tree occurs in Latin literature in the Elm of Dreams in the Aeneid. When the Sibyl of Cumae leads Aeneas down to the Underworld, one of the sights is the Stygian Elm:
- In medio ramos annosaque bracchia pandit
- ulmus opaca, ingens, quam sedem somnia vulgo
- uana tenere ferunt, foliisque sub omnibus haerent.
- [:Spreads in the midst her boughs and agéd arms
- an elm, huge, shadowy, where vain dreams, ’tis said,
- are wont to roost them, under every leaf close-clinging.]
Virgil refers to a Roman superstition (vulgo) that elms were trees of ill-omen because their fruit seemed to be of no value. It has been noted that two elm-motifs have arisen from classical literature: (1)
the ‘Paradisal Elm’ motif, arising from pastoral idylls and the elm-and-vine theme, and (2) the ‘Elm and Death’ motif, perhaps arising from Homer’s commemorative elms and Virgil’s Stygian Elm. Many references to elm in European literature from the Renaissance onwards fit into one or other of these categories.
There are two examples of pteleogenesis (:birth from elms) in world myths. In Germanic and Scandinavian mythology the first woman, Embla, was fashioned from an elm,
while in Japanese mythology Kamuy Fuchi, the chief goddess of the Ainu people, “was born from an elm impregnated by the Possessor of the Heavens”.
The cutting of the elm was a diplomatic altercation between the Kings of France and England in 1188, during which an elm tree near Gisors in Normandy was felled. 
In politics the elm is associated with revolutions. In England after the Glorious Revolution of 1688, the final victory of parliamentarians over monarchists, and the arrival from Holland, with William III and Mary II, of the ‘Dutch Elm’ hybrid, planting of this cultivar became a fashion among enthusiasts of the new political order.
In the American Revolution ‘The Liberty Tree’ was an American white elm in Boston, Massachusetts, in front of which, from 1765, the first resistance meetings were held against British attempts to tax the American colonists without democratic representation.
When the British, knowing that the tree was a symbol of rebellion, felled it in 1775, the Americans took to widespread ‘Liberty Elm’ planting, and sewed elm symbols on to their revolutionary flags. Elm-planting by American Presidents later became something of a tradition.
In the French Revolution, too, Les arbres de la liberté (:Liberty Trees), often elms, were planted as symbols of revolutionary hopes, the first in Vienne, Isère, in 1790, by a priest inspired by the Boston elm.L’Orme de La Madeleine (:
the Elm of La Madeleine), Faycelles, Département de Lot, planted around 1790 and surviving to this day, was a case in point. By contrast, a famous Parisian elm associated with the Ancien Régime, L’Orme de Saint-Gervais in the Place St-Gervais, was felled by the revolutionaries; church authorities planted a new elm in its place in 1846, and an early 20th-century elm stands on the site today. Premier Lionel Jospin, obliged by tradition to plant a tree in the garden of the Hôtel Matignon, the official residence and workplace of Prime Ministers of France, insisted on planting an elm, so-called ‘tree of the Left’, choosing the new disease-resistant hybrid ‘Clone 762’ (Ulmus ‘Wanoux’ = Vada). In the French Republican Calendar, in use from 1792 to 1806, the 12th day of the month Ventôse (= 2 March) was officially named “jour de l’Orme”, Day of the Elm.
Liberty Elms were also planted in other countries in Europe to celebrate their revolutions, an example being L’Olmo di Montepaone, L’Albero della Libertà (:the Elm of Montepaone, Liberty Tree) in Montepaone, Calabria, planted in 1799 to commemorate the founding of the democratic Parthenopean Republic, and surviving until it was brought down by a recent storm (it has since been cloned and ‘replanted’). After the Greek Revolution of 1821–32, a thousand young elms were brought to Athens from Missolonghi, “Sacred City of the Struggle” against the Turks and scene of Lord Byron’s death, and planted in 1839–40 in the National Garden. In an ironic development, feral elms have spread and invaded the grounds of the abandoned Greek royal summer palace at Tatoi in Attica.
In a chance event linking elms and revolution, on the morning of his execution (30 January 1649), walking to the scaffold at the Palace of Whitehall, King Charles I turned to his guards and pointed out, with evident emotion, an elm near the entrance to Spring Gardens that had been planted by his brother in happier days. The tree was said to be still standing in the 1860s.
- Richens, R. H. (1983). Elm. Cambridge University Press.
- Flora of Israel Online: Ulmus minor Mill. | Flora of Israel Online, accessdate: July 28, 2020
- Fu, L., Xin, Y. & Whittemore, A. (2002). Ulmaceae, in Wu, Z. & Raven, P. (eds) Flora of ChinaArchived 10 November 2006 at the Wayback Machine, Vol. 5 (Ulmaceae through Basellaceae). Science Press, Beijing, and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, US.
- Rackham, Oliver (1980). Ancient woodland: its history, vegetation and uses. Edward Arnold, London
- Brummitt, R. K. (1992). Vascular Plant Families & Genera. Royal Botanic Garden, Kew, London, UK.
- Marren, Peter, Woodland Heritage (Newton Abbot, 1990).
- Heybroek, H. M., Goudzwaard, L, Kaljee, H. (2009). Iep of olm, karakterboom van de Lage Landen (:Elm, a tree with character of the Low Countries). KNNV, Uitgeverij. ISBN 9789050112819
- Edlin, H. L. (1947). British Woodland Trees, p.26. 3rd. ion. London: B. T. Batsford Ltd.
- Webber, J. (2021). What have we learned from 100 years of Dutch Elm Disease? Quarterly Journal of Forestry. October 2021, Vol. 113, No.4, p.264-268. Royal Forestry Society, UK.
- Brasier, C. M. & Mehotra, M. D. (1995). Ophiostoma himal-ulmi sp. nov., a new species of Dutch elm disease fungus endemic to the Himalayas. Mycological Research 1995, vol. 99 (2), 205–215 (44 ref.) ISSN 0953-7562. Elsevier, Oxford, UK.
- Brasier, C. M. (1996). New horizons in Dutch elm disease control. Pages 20-28 in: Report on Forest ResearchArchived 28 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine, 1996. Forestry Commission. HMSO, London, UK.
- “Elm YellowsArchived 4 October 2021 at the Wayback Machine“. Elmcare.Com. 19 Mar. 2008.
- Price, Terry. “Wilt DiseasesArchived 28 September 2021 at the Wayback Machine“. Forestpests.Org. 23 Mar. 2005. 19 Mar. 2008.
- Rines, George Edwin, ed. (1920). Encyclopedia Americana..
- Gilman, D. C.; Peck, H. T.; Colby, F. M., eds. (1905). . New International Encyclopedia (1st ed.). New York: Dodd, Mead.
- “Elm Tree Lawn Begins New Life”. Scripps College News. Scripps College. 14 April 2008. Retrieved 18 February 2021.
- Burdekin, D.A.; Rushforth, K.D. (November 1996). Revised by J.F. Webber. “Elms resistant to Dutch elm disease”(PDF). Arboriculture Research Note. Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham: Arboricultural Advisory & Information Service. 2/96: 1–9. ISSN 1362-5128. Archived(PDF) from the original on 26 October 2021. Retrieved 26 October 2021.
- Ware, G. (1995). Little-known elms from China: landscape tree possibilities. Journal of ArboricultureArchived 30 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine, (Nov. 1995). International Society of Arboriculture, Champaign, Illinois, US.
- Biggerstaffe, C., Iles, J. K., & Gleason, M. L. (1999). Sustainable urban landscapes: Dutch elm disease and disease-resistant elms. SUL-4, Iowa State University
- Sticklen, Mariam B.; Sherald, James L. (1993). Chapter 13: Strategies for the Production of Disease-Resistant Elms. Mariam B.; Sherald, James L. (eds.). Dutch Elm Disease Research: Cellular and Molecular Approaches. New York: Springer-Verlag. pp. 171–183. ISBN 9781461568728. LCCN 93017484. OCLC 851736058. Retrieved 22 November 2021 – via Google Books.
- Newhouse, AE; Schrodt, F; Liang, H; Maynard, CA; Powell, WA (2007). “Transgenic American elm shows reduced Dutch elm disease symptoms and normal mycorrhizal colonization”. Plant Cell Rep. 26 (7): 977–987. doi:10.1007/s00299-007-0313-z. PMID 17310333. S2CID 21780088.
- Martín-Benito D., Concepción García-Vallejo M., Pajares J. A., López D. 2005. “Triterpenes in elms in SpainArchived 28 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine“. Can. J. For. Res. 35: 199–205 (2005).
- Pajares, J. A., García, S., Díez, J. J., Martín, D. & García-Vallejo, M. C. 2004. “Feeding responses by Scolytus scolytus to twig bark extracts from elmsArchived 7 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine“. Invest Agrar: Sist Recur For. 13: 217–225.
- Martín, JA; Solla, A; Venturas, M; Collada, C; Domínguez, J; Miranda, E; Fuentes, P; Burón, M; Iglesias, S; Gil, L (1 April 2021). “Seven Ulmus minor clones tolerant to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi registered as forest reproductive material in Spain”. IForest – Biogeosciences and Forestry. Italian Society of Sivilculture and Forest Ecology (SISEF). 8 (2): 172–180. doi:10.3832/ifor1224-008. ISSN 1971-7458.
- “Scientific Name: Ulmus x species”(PDF). Archived from the original(PDF) on 17 December 2008. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
- Santini A., Fagnani A., Ferrini F., Mittempergher L., Brunetti M., Crivellaro A., Macchioni N., “Elm breeding for DED resistance, the Italian clones and their wood propertiesArchived 26 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine“. Invest Agrar: Sist. Recur. For (2004) 13 (1), 179–184. 2004.
- Santamour, J., Frank, S. & Bentz, S. (1995). Updated checklist of elm (Ulmus) cultivars for use in North America. Journal of Arboriculture, 21:3 (May 1995), 121–131. International Society of Arboriculture, Champaign, Illinois, US
- Smalley, E. B. & Guries, R. P. (1993). Breeding Elms for Resistance to Dutch Elm Disease. Annual Review of Phytopathology Vol. 31 : 325–354. Palo Alto, California
- Heybroek, Hans M. (1983). Burdekin, D.A. (ed.). “Resistant elms for Europe”(PDF). Forestry Commission Bulletin (Research on Dutch Elm Disease in Europe). London: HMSO (60): 108–113. Archived(PDF) from the original on 15 February 2021.
- Heybroek, H.M. (1993). “The Dutch Elm Breeding Program”. In Sticklen, Mariam B.; Sherald, James L. (eds.). Dutch Elm Disease Research. New York, USA: Springer-Verlag. pp. 16–25. ISBN 978-1-4615-6874-2. Archived from the original on 26 October 2021. Retrieved 26 October 2021.
- Mittempergher, L; Santini, A (2004). “The history of elm breeding”(PDF). Investigacion Agraria: Sistemas y Recursos Forestales. 13 (1): 161–177. Archived(PDF) from the original on 11 February 2021.
- Martin, J., Sobrina-Plata, J., Rodriguez-Calcerrada, J., Collada, C., and Gil, L. (2021). Breeding and scientific advances in the fight against Dutch elm disease: Will they allow the use of elms in forest restoration? New Forests, 1-33. Springer Nature 2021. 
- Mittempergher, L., (2000). Elm Yellows in Europe. In: The Elms, Conservation and Disease Management. pp.
103-119. Dunn C.P., ed. Kluwer Academic Press Publishers, Boston, USA.
- (1) “National Elm Trial”. Bioagricultural Sciences & Pest Management. Fort Collins, Colorado: Colorado State University College of Agricultural Sciences: Department of Agricultural Biology. 2021.Archived March 30, 2021, at the Wayback Machine.
(2) Griffin, Jason J.; Jacobi, E., William R.; McPherson, Gregory; Sadof, Clifford S.; et al. (2021). “Ten-Year Performance of the United States National Elm Trial”(PDF). Arboriculture & Urban Forestry. International Society of Arboriculture. 43 (3): 107–120. doi:10.17660/ActaHortic.2021.1191.5. ISSN 0567-7572. OCLC 7347020445. Retrieved 7 February 2021.
- Brookes, A. H. (2021). Disease-resistant elm cultivars, Butterfly Conservation trials report, 2nd revision, 2021. Butterfly Conservation, Hants & IoW Branch, England. “Archived copy”(PDF). Archived from the original(PDF) on 29 May 2021. Retrieved 30 January 2021.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Elwes, H. J. & Henry, A. (1913). The Trees of Great Britain & IrelandArchived 3 March 2021 at the Wayback Machine. Vol. VII. 1848–1929. Republished 2004 Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9781108069380
- Edlin, H. L., Guide to Tree Planting and Cultivation (London, 1970), p.330, p.316
- ‘Salt-tolerant landscape plants’, countyofdane.com/myfairlakes/A3877.pdf
- Hiemstra, J.A.; et al. (2007). Belang en toekomst van de iep in Nederland [Importance and future of the elm in the Netherlands]. Wageningen, Netherlands: Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving B.V. Archived from the original on 28 September 2021. Retrieved 26 October 2021.
- Central Park Conservancy. The Mall and Literary WalkArchived 10 May 2021 at the Wayback Machine.
- Pollak, Michael. The New York Times. “Answers to Questions About New YorkArchived April 1, 2021, at the Wayback Machine.” 11 January 2021.
- Sherald, James L (December 2009). Elms for the Monumental Core: History and Management Plan(PDF). Washington, D.C.: Center for Urban Ecology, National Capital Region, National Park Service. Natural Resource Report NPS/NCR/NRR–2009/001. Archived from the original(PDF) on 29 November 2021. Retrieved 14 October 2021.
- Michael Ventris and John Chadwick, Documents in Mycaenean Greek, Cambridge 1959
- Hesiod, Works and Days, 435
- ElmArchived 3 October 2021 at the Wayback Machine. Niche Timbers. Accessed 19-08-2009.
- Columella, De Re Rustica
- Ovid, Amores 2.16.41
- Virgil, Georgica, I.2: ulmis adiungere vites (:to marry vines to elms); Horace, Epistolae 1.16.3: amicta vitibus ulmo (:the elm clothed in the vine); and Catullus, Carmina, 62
- Braun, Lesley; Cohen, Marc (2006). Herbs and Natural Supplements: An Evidence-Based Guide (2nd ed.). Churchill Livingstone. p. 586. ISBN 978-0-7295-3796-4., quote:”Although Slippery Elm has not been scientifically investigated, the FDA has approved it as a safe demulcent substance.”
- Maunder, M. (1988). Plants in Peril, 3. Ulmus wallichiana (Ulmaceae). Kew Magazine. 5(3): 137-140. Royal Botanic Garden, Kew, London.
- Santini, A., Pecori, F., Pepori, A. L., Ferrini, F., Ghelardini, L. (In press). Genotype × environment interaction and growth stability of several elm clones resistant to Dutch elm disease. Forest Ecology and Management. Elsevier B. V., Netherlands.
- Osborne, P. (1983). The influence of Dutch elm disease on bird population trends. Bird Study, 1983: 27-38.
- D. S. Vohra (1 June 2004). Bach Flower Remedies: A Comprehensive Study. B. Jain Publishers. p. 3. ISBN 978-81-7021-271-3. Archived from the original on 31 December 2021. Retrieved 2 September 2021.
- Solla, A., Bohnens, J., Collin, E., Diamandis, S., Franke, A., Gil, L., Burón, M., Santini, A., Mittempergher, L., Pinon, J., and Vanden Broeck, A. (2005). Screening European Elms for Resistance to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. Forest Science 51(2) 2005. Society of American Foresters, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
- Pinon J., Husson C., Collin E. (2005). Susceptibility of native French elm clones to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. Annals of Forest Science 62: 1–8
- Collin, E. (2001). Elm. In Teissier du Cros (Ed.) (2001) Forest Genetic Resources Management and Conservation. France as a case study. Min. Agriculture, Bureau des Ressources Genetiques CRGF, INRA-DIC, Paris: 38–39.
- Johannes Christiaan Karel KlinkenbergArchived 21 January 2021 at the Wayback Machine
- Athenaeus, Δειπνοσοφισταί, III
- Callimachus, Hymn to Artemis, 120-121 [:’First at an elm, and second at an oak didst thou shoot, and third again at a wild beast’]. theoi.com/Text/CallimachusHymns1.html
- ‘and all about were elm-trees planted by nymphs of the mountain, daughters of Zeus that beareth the aegis.’ http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:1999.01.0134:book=6:card=414&highlight=elmIliad, Ζ, 419–420, www.perseus.tufts.edu] Archived 26 May 2021 at the Wayback Machine
- Iliad, Φ, 242–243, www.perseus.tufts.eduArchived 26 May 2021 at the Wayback Machine
- Philostratus, ̔Ηρωικός, 3,1 perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:2008.01.0597:olpage=672
- Quintus Smyrnaeus, Τα μεθ’ `Ομηρον, 7.458–462
- Pliny the Elder, Naturalis Historia, 16.88
- Anth. Pal., 7.141
- Lucas, F. L., From Olympus to the Styx (London, 1934)
- Theocritus, Eιδύλλιo I, 19–23; VII, 135–40
- Vergil, Aeneid, VI. 282–5
- Richens, R. H., Elm (Cambridge 1983) p.155
- Richens, R. H., Elm, Ch.10 (Cambridge, 1983)
- Heybroek, H. M., ‘Resistant Elms for Europe’ (1982) in Research on Dutch Elm Disease in Europe, HMSO, London 1983
- Wilkinson, Gerald, Epitaph for the Elm (London, 1978), p.87
- Shakespeare, A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Act 4, Scene 1
- Janssen, Carolyn. “An elm tree and three sisters (Book Review)”. ebscohost. Retrieved 21 September 2021.
- “Priory of Sion”. Crystalinks. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
- Rackham, O. (1976). Trees and Woodland in the British Landscape J. M. Dent, London.
- Armstrong, J. V.; Sell, P. D. (1996). “A revision of the British elms (Ulmus L., Ulmaceae): the historical background”. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 120: 39–50. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.1996.tb00478.x. Archived from the original on 26 October 2021. Retrieved 26 October 2021.
- Richens, Elm (Cambridge, 1983)
- L’Orme de La Madeleine, giuseppemusolino.itArchived 26 February 2021 at the Wayback Machine
- L’Orme de St-Gervais: biographie d’un arbre, www.paris.frArchived 6 September 2021 at the Wayback Machine
- Ulmus ‘Wanoux’ (Vada)) freeimagefinder.com/detail/6945514690.html
- calabriaonline.comArchived 30 May 2021 at the Wayback Machine
- Ο μοναδικός Εθνικός μας Κήπος, paidevo.gr/teachers/?p=859
- Νίκος Μπελαβίλας, ΜΥΘΟΙ ΚΑΙ ΠΡΑΓΜΑΤΙΚΟΤΗΤΕΣ ΓΙΑ ΤΟ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΙΤΙΚΟ
ΠΑΡΚΟ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΟΥ, courses.arch.ntua.gr/fsr/112047/Nikos_Belavilas-Mythoi_kai_Pragmatikotites
- Elizabeth and Mary Kirby, Talks about Trees: a popular account of their nature and uses, 3rd edn., p.97-98 (1st edn. titled Chapters on Trees: a popular account of their nature and uses, London, 1873)
- Tottenham: Growth before 1850′, A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 5: Hendon, Kingsbury, Great Stanmore, Little Stanmore, Edmonton Enfield, Monken Hadley, South Mimms, Tottenham (1976)
- “London Gardens Online”. www.londongardensonline.org.uk. Archived from the original on 27 January 2021. Retrieved 26 January 2021.
- “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 3 December 2021. Retrieved 30 November 2021.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Clouston, B., Stansfield, K., eds., After the Elm (London, 1979)
Species and species cultivars
In North America, careful selection has produced a number of trees resistant not only to DED, but also to the droughts and cold winters that occur within the continent. Research in the United States has concentrated on the American elm (Ulmus americana), resulting in the release of DED-resistant clones, notably the cultivars’Valley Forge’ and ‘Jefferson’.
In 1993, Mariam B. Sticklen and James L. Sherald reported the results of experiments funded by the United States National Park Service and conducted at Michigan State University in East Lansing that were designed to apply genetic engineering techniques to the development of DED-resistant strains of American elm trees. In 2007, AE Newhouse and F Schrodt of the State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry in Syracuse reported that young transgenic American elm trees had shown reduced DED symptoms and normal mycorrhizal colonization.
In Europe, the European white elm (Ulmus laevis) has received much attention. While this elm has little innate resistance to Dutch elm disease, it is not favoured by the vector bark beetles and thus only becomes colonized and infected when there are no other choices, a rare situation in western Europe.
Research in Spain has suggested that it may be the presence of a triterpene, alnulin, which makes the tree bark unattractive to the beetle species that spread the disease. However this possibility has not been conclusively proven. More recently, field elms Ulmus minor highly resistant to DED have been discovered in Spain, and form the basis of a major breeding programme.