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Alternative medicine

Elm has been listed as one of the 38 substances that are used to prepare Bach flower remedies,[54] a kind of alternative medicine.

Biomass

As fossil fuel resources diminish, increasing attention is being paid to trees as sources of energy. In Italy, the Istituto per la Protezione delle Piante is (2021) in the process of releasing to commerce very fast-growing elm cultivars, able to increase in height by more than 2 m (6 ft) per annum.[52]

Birds

Sapsucker woodpeckers have a great love of young elm trees.[citation needed]

Bonsai

Chinese elm Ulmus parvifolia is a popular choice for bonsai owing to its tolerance of severe pruning.

Cautions regarding novel cultivars

Elms take many decades to grow to maturity, and as the introduction of these disease-resistant cultivars is relatively recent, their long-term performance and ultimate size and form cannot be predicted with certainty. The National Elm Trial in North America, begun in 2005, is a nationwide trial to assess strengths and weaknesses of the 19 leading cultivars raised in the US over a ten-year period;

European cultivars have been excluded.[34] Meanwhile, in Europe, American and European cultivars are being assessed in field trials started in 2000 by the UK charity Butterfly Conservation.[35]

Central park

New York City’s Central Park is home to approximately 1,200 American elm trees, which constitute over half of all trees in the park. The oldest of these elms were planted during the 1860s by Frederick Law Olmsted, making them among the oldest stands of American elms in the world.

The trees are particularly noteworthy along the Mall and Literary Walk, where four lines of American elms stretch over the walkway forming a cathedral-like covering. A part of New York City’s urban ecology, the elms improve air and water quality, reduce erosion and flooding, and decrease air temperatures during warm days.[41]

While the stand is still vulnerable to DED, in the 1980s the Central Park Conservancy undertook aggressive countermeasures such as heavy pruning and removal of extensively diseased trees. These efforts have largely been successful in saving the majority of the trees, although several are still lost each year.

Description

The genus is hermaphroditic, having apetalousperfect flowers which are wind-pollinated. Elm leaves are alternate, with simple, single- or, most commonly, doubly serrate margins, usually asymmetric at the base and acuminate at the apex.

The fruit is a round wind-dispersed samara flushed with chlorophyll, facilitating photosynthesis before the leaves emerge.[7] The samarae are very light, those of British elms numbering around 50,000 to the pound (454 g).[8] All species are tolerant of a wide range of soils and pH levels but, with few exceptions, demand good drainage. The elm tree can grow to great height, often with a forked trunk creating a vase profile.

Development of trees resistant to dutch elm disease

Efforts to develop DED-resistant cultivars began in the Netherlands in 1928 and continued, uninterrupted by World War II, until 1992.[17] Similar programmes were initiated in North America (1937), Italy (1978), and Spain (1986). Research has followed two paths:

Fodder

Elms also have a long history of cultivation for fodder, with the leafy branches cut to feed livestock. The practice continues today in the Himalaya, where it contributes to serious deforestation.[51]

Further reading

    Clouston, B.; Stansfield, K., eds. (1979). After the Elm. London: Heinemann. ISBN 0-434-13900-9. A general introduction, with a history of Dutch elm disease and proposals for re-landscaping in the aftermath of the pandemic. Illustrated.Coleman, M., ed. (2009). Wych Elm. Edinburgh. ISBN 978-1-906129-21-7. A study of the species, with particular reference to the wych elm in Scotland and its use by craftsmen.Dunn, Christopher P. (2000). The Elms: Breeding, Conservation, and Disease-Management. New York: Boston, Mass. Kluwer academic. ISBN 0-7923-7724-9.Wilkinson, G. (1978). Epitaph for the Elm. London: Hutchinson. ISBN 0-09-921280-3. A photographic and pictorial celebration and general introduction.

Genetic resource conservation

In 1997, a European Union elm project was initiated, its aim to coordinate the conservation of all the elm genetic resources of the member states and, among other things, to assess their resistance to Dutch elm disease. Accordingly, over 300 clones were selected and propagated for testing.[55][56][57]

In art

Many artists have admired elms for the ease and grace of their branching and foliage, and have painted them with sensitivity. Elms are a recurring element in the landscapes and studies of, for example, John Constable, Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller, Frederick Childe Hassam, Karel Klinkenberg,[58] and George Inness.

In local history and place names

The name of what is now the London neighborhood of Seven Sisters is derived from seven elms which stood there at the time when it was a rural area, planted a circle with a walnut tree at their centre, and traceable on maps back to 1619.[88][89]

In mythology and literature

In Greek mythology the nymph Ptelea (Πτελέα, Elm) was one of the eight Hamadryads, nymphs of the forest and daughters of Oxylos and Hamadryas.[59] In his Hymn to Artemis the poet Callimachus (3rd century BC) tells how, at the age of three, the infant goddess Artemis practised her newly acquired silver bow and arrows, made for her by Hephaestus and the Cyclopes, by shooting first at an elm, then at an oak, before turning her aim on a wild animal:

πρῶτον ἐπὶ πτελέην, τὸ δὲ δεύτερον ἧκας ἐπὶ δρῦν, τὸ τρίτον αὖτ᾽ ἐπὶ θῆρα.[60]

The first reference in literature to elms occurs in the Iliad. When Eetion, father of Andromache, is killed by Achilles during the Trojan War, the Mountain Nymphs plant elms on his tomb («περί δὲ πτελέας ἐφύτευσαν νύμφαι ὀρεστιάδες, κoῦραι Διὸς αἰγιόχoιo»).[61]
Also in the Iliad, when the River Scamander, indignant at the sight of so many corpses in his water, overflows and threatens to drown Achilles, the latter grasps a branch of a great elm in an attempt to save himself («ὁ δὲ πτελέην ἕλε χερσὶν εὐφυέα μεγάλην».[62]

The Nymphs also planted elms on the tomb in the Thracian Chersonese of «great-hearted Protesilaus» («μεγάθυμου Πρωτεσιλάου»), the first Greek to fall in the Trojan War. These elms grew to be the tallest in the known world; but when their topmost branches saw far off the ruins of Troy, they immediately withered, so great still was the bitterness of the hero buried below, who had been loved by Laodamia and slain by Hector.[63][64][65] The story is the subject of a poem by Antiphilus of Byzantium (1st century AD) in the Palatine Anthology:

Θεσσαλὲ Πρωτεσίλαε, σὲ μὲν πολὺς ᾄσεται αἰών,
Tρoίᾳ ὀφειλoμένoυ πτώματος ἀρξάμενoν•
σᾶμα δὲ τοι πτελέῃσι συνηρεφὲς ἀμφικoμεῦση
Nύμφαι, ἀπεχθoμένης Ἰλίoυ ἀντιπέρας.
Δένδρα δὲ δυσμήνιτα, καὶ ἤν ποτε τεῖχoς ἴδωσι
Tρώϊον, αὐαλέην φυλλοχoεῦντι κόμην.
ὅσσoς ἐν ἡρώεσσι τότ᾽ ἦν χόλoς, oὗ μέρoς ἀκμὴν
ἐχθρὸν ἐν ἀψύχoις σώζεται ἀκρέμoσιν.[66]
[:Thessalian Protesilaos, a long age shall sing your praises,
Of the destined dead at Troy the first;
Your tomb with thick-foliaged elms they covered,
The nymphs, across the water from hated Ilion.
Trees full of anger; and whenever that wall they see,
Of Troy, the leaves in their upper crown wither and fall.
So great in the heroes was the bitterness then, some of which still
Remembers, hostile, in the soulless upper branches.]
Код ошибки:  Лада гранта разъем обд - Авто-ремонт

Protesilaus had been king of Pteleos (Πτελεός) in Thessaly, which took its name from the abundant elms (πτελέoι) in the region.[67]

Elms occur often in pastoral poetry, where they symbolise the idyllic life, their shade being mentioned as a place of special coolness and peace. In the first Idyll of Theocritus (3rd century BC), for example, the goat-herd invites the shepherd to sit «here beneath the elm» («δεῦρ’ ὑπὸ τὰν πτελέαν») and sing.

Aside from references literal and metaphorical to the elm and vine theme, the tree occurs in Latin literature in the Elm of Dreams in the Aeneid.[69] When the Sibyl of Cumae leads Aeneas down to the Underworld, one of the sights is the Stygian Elm:

In medio ramos annosaque bracchia pandit
ulmus opaca, ingens, quam sedem somnia vulgo
uana tenere ferunt, foliisque sub omnibus haerent.
[:Spreads in the midst her boughs and agéd arms
an elm, huge, shadowy, where vain dreams, ’tis said,
are wont to roost them, under every leaf close-clinging.]

Virgil refers to a Roman superstition (vulgo) that elms were trees of ill-omen because their fruit seemed to be of no value.[70] It has been noted[71] that two elm-motifs have arisen from classical literature: (1)

the ‘Paradisal Elm’ motif, arising from pastoral idylls and the elm-and-vine theme, and (2) the ‘Elm and Death’ motif, perhaps arising from Homer’s commemorative elms and Virgil’s Stygian Elm. Many references to elm in European literature from the Renaissance onwards fit into one or other of these categories.

There are two examples of pteleogenesis (:birth from elms) in world myths. In Germanic and Scandinavian mythology the first woman, Embla, was fashioned from an elm,[72]
while in Japanese mythology Kamuy Fuchi, the chief goddess of the Ainu people, «was born from an elm impregnated by the Possessor of the Heavens».[73]

In politics

The cutting of the elm was a diplomatic altercation between the Kings of France and England in 1188, during which an elm tree near Gisors in Normandy was felled. [76]

In politics the elm is associated with revolutions. In England after the Glorious Revolution of 1688, the final victory of parliamentarians over monarchists, and the arrival from Holland, with William III and Mary II, of the ‘Dutch Elm’ hybrid, planting of this cultivar became a fashion among enthusiasts of the new political order.[77][78]

In the American Revolution ‘The Liberty Tree’ was an American white elm in Boston, Massachusetts, in front of which, from 1765, the first resistance meetings were held against British attempts to tax the American colonists without democratic representation.

When the British, knowing that the tree was a symbol of rebellion, felled it in 1775, the Americans took to widespread ‘Liberty Elm’ planting, and sewed elm symbols on to their revolutionary flags.[79][80] Elm-planting by American Presidents later became something of a tradition.

In the French Revolution, too, Les arbres de la liberté (:Liberty Trees), often elms, were planted as symbols of revolutionary hopes, the first in Vienne, Isère, in 1790, by a priest inspired by the Boston elm.[79]L’Orme de La Madeleine (:

the Elm of La Madeleine), Faycelles, Département de Lot, planted around 1790 and surviving to this day, was a case in point.[81] By contrast, a famous Parisian elm associated with the Ancien Régime, L’Orme de Saint-Gervais in the Place St-Gervais, was felled by the revolutionaries; church authorities planted a new elm in its place in 1846, and an early 20th-century elm stands on the site today.[82] Premier Lionel Jospin, obliged by tradition to plant a tree in the garden of the Hôtel Matignon, the official residence and workplace of Prime Ministers of France, insisted on planting an elm, so-called ‘tree of the Left’, choosing the new disease-resistant hybrid ‘Clone 762’ (Ulmus ’Wanoux’ = Vada).[83] In the French Republican Calendar, in use from 1792 to 1806, the 12th day of the month Ventôse (= 2 March) was officially named «jour de l’Orme», Day of the Elm.

Liberty Elms were also planted in other countries in Europe to celebrate their revolutions, an example being L’Olmo di Montepaone, L’Albero della Libertà (:the Elm of Montepaone, Liberty Tree) in Montepaone, Calabria, planted in 1799 to commemorate the founding of the democratic Parthenopean Republic, and surviving until it was brought down by a recent storm (it has since been cloned and ‘replanted’).[84] After the Greek Revolution of 1821–32, a thousand young elms were brought to Athens from Missolonghi, «Sacred City of the Struggle» against the Turks and scene of Lord Byron’s death, and planted in 1839–40 in the National Garden.[85][86] In an ironic development, feral elms have spread and invaded the grounds of the abandoned Greek royal summer palace at Tatoi in Attica.

In a chance event linking elms and revolution, on the morning of his execution (30 January 1649), walking to the scaffold at the Palace of Whitehall, King Charles I turned to his guards and pointed out, with evident emotion, an elm near the entrance to Spring Gardens that had been planted by his brother in happier days. The tree was said to be still standing in the 1860s.[87]

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Monographs

    Richens, R. H. (1983). Elm. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-24916-3. A scientific, historical and cultural study, with a thesis on elm-classification, followed by a systematic survey of elms in England, region by region. Illustrated.
  • Heybroek, H. M., Goudzwaard, L, Kaljee, H. (2009). Iep of olm, karakterboom van de Lage Landen (:Elm, a tree with character of the Low Countries). KNNV, Uitgeverij.
  • ISBN 9789050112819. A history of elm planting in the Netherlands, concluding with a 40 – page illustrated review of all the DED – resistant cultivars in commerce in 2009.

National mall

Several rows of American elm trees that the National Park Service (NPS) first planted during the 1930s line much of the 1.9 miles (3.0 km) length of the National Mall in Washington, D.C. DED first appeared on the trees during the 1950s and reached a peak in the 1970s.

The NPS used a number of methods to control the epidemic, including sanitation, pruning, injecting trees with fungicide and replanting with DED-resistant cultivars. The NPS combated the disease’s local insect vector, the smaller European elm bark beetle (Scolytus multistriatus), by trapping and by spraying with insecticides.

Nature’s way, кора красного вяза, 1600 мг, 100 веганских капсул

Notable elm trees

Many elm (Ulmus) trees of various kinds have attained great size or otherwise become particularly noteworthy.

References

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  3. ^ abFu, L., Xin, Y. & Whittemore, A. (2002). Ulmaceae, in Wu, Z. & Raven, P. (eds) Flora of ChinaArchived 10 November 2006 at the Wayback Machine, Vol. 5 (Ulmaceae through Basellaceae). Science Press, Beijing, and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, US.
  4. ^Rackham, Oliver (1980). Ancient woodland: its history, vegetation and uses. Edward Arnold, London
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  7. ^ abHeybroek, H. M., Goudzwaard, L, Kaljee, H. (2009). Iep of olm, karakterboom van de Lage Landen (:Elm, a tree with character of the Low Countries). KNNV, Uitgeverij. ISBN 9789050112819
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  26. ^ abSantini A., Fagnani A., Ferrini F., Mittempergher L., Brunetti M., Crivellaro A., Macchioni N., «Elm breeding for DED resistance, the Italian clones and their wood propertiesArchived 26 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine«. Invest Agrar: Sist. Recur. For (2004) 13 (1), 179–184. 2004.
  27. ^Santamour, J., Frank, S. & Bentz, S. (1995). Updated checklist of elm (Ulmus) cultivars for use in North America. Journal of Arboriculture, 21:3 (May 1995), 121–131. International Society of Arboriculture, Champaign, Illinois, US
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  29. ^Heybroek, Hans M. (1983). Burdekin, D.A. (ed.). «Resistant elms for Europe»(PDF). Forestry Commission Bulletin (Research on Dutch Elm Disease in Europe). London: HMSO (60): 108–113. Archived(PDF) from the original on 15 February 2021.
  30. ^Heybroek, H.M. (1993). «The Dutch Elm Breeding Program». In Sticklen, Mariam B.; Sherald, James L. (eds.). Dutch Elm Disease Research. New York, USA: Springer-Verlag. pp. 16–25. ISBN 978-1-4615-6874-2. Archived from the original on 26 October 2021. Retrieved 26 October 2021.
  31. ^Mittempergher, L; Santini, A (2004). «The history of elm breeding»(PDF). Investigacion Agraria: Sistemas y Recursos Forestales. 13 (1): 161–177. Archived(PDF) from the original on 11 February 2021.
  32. ^Martin, J., Sobrina-Plata, J., Rodriguez-Calcerrada, J., Collada, C., and Gil, L. (2021). Breeding and scientific advances in the fight against Dutch elm disease: Will they allow the use of elms in forest restoration? New Forests, 1-33. Springer Nature 2021. [1]
  33. ^Mittempergher, L., (2000). Elm Yellows in Europe. In: The Elms, Conservation and Disease Management. pp.
    103-119. Dunn C.P., ed. Kluwer Academic Press Publishers, Boston, USA.
  34. ^(1) «National Elm Trial». Bioagricultural Sciences & Pest Management. Fort Collins, Colorado: Colorado State University College of Agricultural Sciences: Department of Agricultural Biology. 2021.Archived March 30, 2021, at the Wayback Machine.
    (2) Griffin, Jason J.; Jacobi, E., William R.; McPherson, Gregory; Sadof, Clifford S.; et al. (2021). «Ten-Year Performance of the United States National Elm Trial»(PDF). Arboriculture & Urban Forestry. International Society of Arboriculture. 43 (3): 107–120. doi:10.17660/ActaHortic.2021.1191.5. ISSN 0567-7572. OCLC 7347020445. Retrieved 7 February 2021.
  35. ^Brookes, A. H. (2021). Disease-resistant elm cultivars, Butterfly Conservation trials report, 2nd revision, 2021. Butterfly Conservation, Hants & IoW Branch, England. «Archived copy»(PDF). Archived from the original(PDF) on 29 May 2021. Retrieved 30 January 2021.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  36. ^Elwes, H. J. & Henry, A. (1913). The Trees of Great Britain & IrelandArchived 3 March 2021 at the Wayback Machine. Vol. VII. 1848–1929. Republished 2004 Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9781108069380
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  38. ^‘Salt-tolerant landscape plants’, countyofdane.com/myfairlakes/A3877.pdf
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  40. ^Hiemstra, J.A.; et al. (2007). Belang en toekomst van de iep in Nederland [Importance and future of the elm in the Netherlands]. Wageningen, Netherlands: Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving B.V. Archived from the original on 28 September 2021. Retrieved 26 October 2021.
  41. ^Central Park Conservancy. The Mall and Literary WalkArchived 10 May 2021 at the Wayback Machine.
  42. ^Pollak, Michael. The New York Times. «Answers to Questions About New YorkArchived April 1, 2021, at the Wayback Machine.» 11 January 2021.
  43. ^Sherald, James L (December 2009). Elms for the Monumental Core: History and Management Plan(PDF). Washington, D.C.: Center for Urban Ecology, National Capital Region, National Park Service. Natural Resource Report NPS/NCR/NRR—2009/001. Archived from the original(PDF) on 29 November 2021. Retrieved 14 October 2021.
  44. ^Michael Ventris and John Chadwick, Documents in Mycaenean Greek, Cambridge 1959
  45. ^Hesiod, Works and Days, 435
  46. ^ abElmArchived 3 October 2021 at the Wayback Machine. Niche Timbers. Accessed 19-08-2009.
  47. ^Columella, De Re Rustica
  48. ^Ovid, Amores 2.16.41
  49. ^Virgil, Georgica, I.2: ulmis adiungere vites (:to marry vines to elms); Horace, Epistolae 1.16.3: amicta vitibus ulmo (:the elm clothed in the vine); and Catullus, Carmina, 62
  50. ^Braun, Lesley; Cohen, Marc (2006). Herbs and Natural Supplements: An Evidence-Based Guide (2nd ed.). Churchill Livingstone. p. 586. ISBN 978-0-7295-3796-4., quote:»Although Slippery Elm has not been scientifically investigated, the FDA has approved it as a safe demulcent substance.»
  51. ^Maunder, M. (1988). Plants in Peril, 3. Ulmus wallichiana (Ulmaceae). Kew Magazine. 5(3): 137-140. Royal Botanic Garden, Kew, London.
  52. ^Santini, A., Pecori, F., Pepori, A. L., Ferrini, F., Ghelardini, L. (In press). Genotype × environment interaction and growth stability of several elm clones resistant to Dutch elm disease. Forest Ecology and Management. Elsevier B. V., Netherlands.
  53. ^Osborne, P. (1983). The influence of Dutch elm disease on bird population trends. Bird Study, 1983: 27-38.
  54. ^D. S. Vohra (1 June 2004). Bach Flower Remedies: A Comprehensive Study. B. Jain Publishers. p. 3. ISBN 978-81-7021-271-3. Archived from the original on 31 December 2021. Retrieved 2 September 2021.
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  56. ^Pinon J., Husson C., Collin E. (2005). Susceptibility of native French elm clones to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. Annals of Forest Science 62: 1–8
  57. ^Collin, E. (2001). Elm. In Teissier du Cros (Ed.) (2001) Forest Genetic Resources Management and Conservation. France as a case study. Min. Agriculture, Bureau des Ressources Genetiques CRGF, INRA-DIC, Paris: 38–39.
  58. ^Johannes Christiaan Karel KlinkenbergArchived 21 January 2021 at the Wayback Machine
  59. ^Athenaeus, Δειπνοσοφισταί, III
  60. ^Callimachus, Hymn to Artemis, 120-121 [:’First at an elm, and second at an oak didst thou shoot, and third again at a wild beast’]. theoi.com/Text/CallimachusHymns1.html
  61. ^ ‘and all about were elm-trees planted by nymphs of the mountain, daughters of Zeus that beareth the aegis.’ http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:1999.01.0134:book=6:card=414&highlight=elmIliad, Ζ, 419–420, www.perseus.tufts.edu] Archived 26 May 2021 at the Wayback Machine
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Species and species cultivars

In North America, careful selection has produced a number of trees resistant not only to DED, but also to the droughts and cold winters that occur within the continent. Research in the United States has concentrated on the American elm (Ulmus americana), resulting in the release of DED-resistant clones, notably the cultivars’Valley Forge’ and ‘Jefferson’.

In 1993, Mariam B. Sticklen and James L. Sherald reported the results of experiments funded by the United States National Park Service and conducted at Michigan State University in East Lansing that were designed to apply genetic engineering techniques to the development of DED-resistant strains of American elm trees.[20] In 2007, AE Newhouse and F Schrodt of the State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry in Syracuse reported that young transgenic American elm trees had shown reduced DED symptoms and normal mycorrhizal colonization.[21]

In Europe, the European white elm (Ulmus laevis) has received much attention. While this elm has little innate resistance to Dutch elm disease, it is not favoured by the vector bark beetles and thus only becomes colonized and infected when there are no other choices, a rare situation in western Europe.

Research in Spain has suggested that it may be the presence of a triterpene, alnulin, which makes the tree bark unattractive to the beetle species that spread the disease.[22] However this possibility has not been conclusively proven.[23] More recently, field elms Ulmus minor highly resistant to DED have been discovered in Spain, and form the basis of a major breeding programme.[24]

Taxonomy

There are about 30 to 40 species of Ulmus (elm); the ambiguity in number results from difficulty in delineating species, owing to the ease of hybridization between them and the development of local seed-sterile vegetatively propagated microspecies in some areas, mainly in the Ulmus field elm (Ulmus minor) group.

Oliver Rackham[4] describes Ulmus as the most critical genus in the entire British flora, adding that ‘species and varieties are a distinction in the human mind rather than a measured degree of genetic variation’.

The classification adopted in the List of elm species, varieties, cultivars and hybrids is largely based on that established by Brummitt.[5] A large number of synonyms have accumulated over the last three centuries; their currently accepted names can be found in the list List of elm Synonyms and Accepted Names.

Viticulture

The Romans, and more recently the Italians, used to plant elms in vineyards as supports for vines. Lopped at three metres, the elms’ quick growth, twiggy lateral branches, light shade and root-suckering made them ideal trees for this purpose. The lopped branches were used for fodder and firewood.[47]Ovid in his Amores characterizes the elm as «loving the vine»: ulmus amat vitem, vitis non deserit ulmum (:the elm loves the vine, the vine does not desert the elm),[48] and the ancients spoke of the «marriage» between elm and vine.[49]

Скользкий вяз (slippery elm bark), nature’s way, 1600 мг, 100 капсул

Отвар Коры вяза принимают при воспалении слизистой желудка, поносе. Это отличное вяжущее и обволакивающее средство. Кора скользкого вяза создает защитное покрытие в отделах кишечника – что препятствует их повреждению, а значит попаданию токсинов в кровь – а ведь это и является основной причиной заболевания псориазом.

Хорошо выпаренный отвар Коры вяза применяется также при ожогах, экземах, гнойных или плохо заживающих ранах.

Продукт содержит: витамины ( А, В, С, К), магний, фосфор, дубильные вещества, стероиды, фенолкарбоновые кислоты, тритерпеноиды, кахетины. Для получения более подробной консультации вы можете обратиться к менеджеру на сайт Biotus

Nature’s Way, Slippery Elm Bark

Способ применения: по 4 капсулы три раза в день с теплой водой между приемами еды.

Другие ингредиенты: растительная капсула, целлюлоза, стеарат магния.

Предупреждения: хранить в сухом, прохладном месте вне досягаемости детей. Не употреблять, если защитное кольцо сломано или отсутствует.

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